Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a fast, abnormal heart rate. It begins in your heart’s lower chambers, called the ventricles. VT is defined as 3 or more heartbeats in a row, at a rate of more than 120 beats a minute. If VT lasts for more than a few seconds at a time, it can become life-threatening. The rapid heartbeat does not give your heart enough time to fill with blood before it contracts again. This can affect blood flow to the rest of your body.
Ventricular tachycardia occurs when the heart’s electrical system causes the ventricles to beat too fast. Some heart problems can interfere with the heart’s normal electrical system and lead to VT. These include:
VT is often linked to other heart problems that can damage or change normal heart muscle function. Damaged heart muscles can create abnormal electrical circuits that result in VT. You may be more at risk for VT if you have:
Some types of genetic diseases can also lead to VT. These include:
In rare cases, VT occurs when there are no other heart problems.
When you have VT, your heart beats very fast. This may only last for a few seconds. Longer episodes are dangerous. The heart beats so fast that it can’t get enough blood to the rest of your body.
Symptoms of VT may include:
In some cases, there are no symptoms at all.
To diagnose VT, your healthcare provider may order an EKG (electrocardiogram). This test records your heartbeat’s rate and rhythm. Your provider may want to closely watch your heart’s activity for a longer period of time. Then you may need to use a holter monitor or an event monitor. These are small devices that you wear while doing your normal activities.
In some cases your provider may think you have VT, but hasn’t been able to document it. Then a tiny heart recording device can be implanted into your chest. It can record heart activity for 1 to 2 years.
Treatment will depend on your symptoms. No treatment may be needed if:
If you do have symptoms, your healthcare provider might prescribe medicine (a beta blocker or antiarrhythmic medicine) to control your heart rhythm.
For VT that is long-term (chronic) or life-threatening, an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) may be used. This small device is implanted into your chest. It is connected to your heart with wires. When an abnormal heartbeat occurs, the ICD sends out an electric shock to restore your normal heartbeat.
Some VT may be treated with catheter ablation. This procedure uses radiofrequency energy to destroy the abnormal heart tissue that is causing the rapid heartbeat.
Some people may have mild symptoms from VT, or no symptoms at all. But for others, VT can be very dangerous. It can lead to sudden cardiac arrest and death.
VT prevention focuses on treating the underlying heart problems that cause the disorder. This may include:
For some people, caffeine or alcohol can be a trigger for VT episodes. Avoid these things if they affect your VT.
If your healthcare provider diagnoses VT, follow his or her treatment plan closely. Take all medicines as prescribed. And tell your provider about any medicines you may be taking for other health problems. Discuss your alcohol, tobacco, or caffeine use with your medical team. These things can contribute to an irregular heartbeat.
If you have any of these symptoms, seek immediate medical help:
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your health care provider:
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