Arthritis is a group of more than 100 different diseases. It is also a type of rheumatic disease. Rheumatic diseases may cause pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints. They can also cause pain in other body structures such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones. But rheumatic diseases can also affect other areas of the body, including internal organs. Some rheumatic diseases affect connective tissues (connective tissue diseases). Others may be caused by an autoimmune disorder. This means the body's immune system attacks its own healthy cells and tissues.
Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases may be treated by your doctor or other healthcare providers. Several doctors from different medical specialties may be involved in the treatment at the same time. This team approach is particularly important to help manage the symptoms of a rheumatic disease. Many symptoms are long-term (chronic) and change in severity over time.
Some of the more common healthcare providers that help treat arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are listed below.
A primary care doctor is the healthcare provider you see for general health care. This doctor has special training in general internal medicine, family practice, or another first-level-of-care area. Primary care doctors offer:
Routine health care, including annual physical exams and vaccines
Treatment for short-term (acute) health conditions
Care for conditions that may become more serious or chronic later
Your primary care doctor may diagnose or treat a disease, but he or she may also refer you to a specialist.
A rheumatologist is a doctor with special training to treat arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Most rheumatologists have a background in internal medicine or pediatrics. Rheumatologists are trained to identify many types of rheumatic diseases in their earliest stages. These include arthritis, many types of autoimmune diseases, musculoskeletal pain, disorders of the musculoskeletal system, and osteoporosis. A rheumatologist has finished 4 years of medical school and 3 years of training in internal medicine or pediatrics. He or she also has had 2 to 3 more years of special training in rheumatology. A rheumatologist may also be board certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine.
An orthopedic surgeon or orthopedist is a doctor with special training in orthopedic surgery. Orthopedists are trained to know how the musculoskeletal system works. This means he or she can diagnose a condition or disorder, find and treat an injury, give rehabilitation to an affected area, and help guide you to prevent further damage.
The orthopedist may have completed up to 14 years of training. After becoming licensed to practice medicine, the orthopedic surgeon may become board certified by the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery.
Many orthopedic surgeons practice general orthopedics. Others specialize in certain areas of the body such as the foot, shoulder, or spine.. And others specialize in certain areas of care, such as sports medicine. Some orthopedists may focus on several areas and may work with other specialists, such as neurosurgeons, rheumatologists, or physiatrists.
Physical therapy (PT) is a healthcare provider who focuses on body motion and function in these systems: neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, and cardiopulmonary.
PTs are important members of the healthcare team. They evaluate and give treatment for people with health problems caused by injury, disease, or overuse of muscles or tendons.
PTs have a degree in physical therapy. Many also have a master's degree. In order to practice, all graduates must be licensed by their state by passing a national certification test.
PTs may practice in a variety of places. These include:
Home health agencies
Community health centers
PTs help you live with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases by the following:
Make it easier for you to move
Improve your balance and gait
Help you move muscles and other soft tissues
Teach you how to better use your body
Help you use casts or splints
Teach you how to use a wheelchair safely
Help you recover after a nerve injury
Help you set up an exercise program
Teach your family how to help you get better
Help you manage pain
Teach you how to walk safely
Occupational therapy is a healthcare provider who helps people go back to their daily tasks after a disease or injury. An occupational therapist often does the following work to help you recover from an orthopedic condition:
Helps plan treatment activities help both children and adults grow mentally, socially, and physically
Helps children and adults learn how to do daily tasks
Leads group or individual treatment to help children and adults in a mental health center learn to cope with daily activities
Recommends changes in layout and design of the home or school to give children and adults with injuries or disabilities more access and mobility
Occupational therapists work in a variety of places. These include:
Home care agencies
A podiatrist is a doctor with special training to treat foot problems. He or she can prescribe medicine and do surgery. For example, people who have arthritis in the feet may see a podiatrist for special supportive shoes.
Nurses with special training in rheumatic diseases may help your doctor in providing care. In addition, these nurses may help you learn about your treatment plan. They can answer many of your questions.
Arthritis and rheumatic diseases can affect anyone, at any age, or of any race. But certain diseases are more common in certain groups:
Osteoarthritis is more common in older adults.
Most people with rheumatoid arthritis are women.
Fibromyalgia affects 2% of the U.S. population.
Gout is more common in men.
Scleroderma is more common in women.
Lupus affects women about 8 to 10 times more often than it affects men.
Ankylosing spondylitis is more common in men.
Experts don't know what causes most types of rheumatic disease. In many cases, the cause depends on the type of rheumatic disease. But researchers believe that some or all of the following may play a role in the one or more types of rheumatic disease:
Genes and family history
Lifestyle choices such as being overweight
Nervous system problems
Too much wear and tear and stress on a joint or joints
The following are the most common symptoms of arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. But each person may have slightly different symptoms. Also different types of rheumatic disease have different symptoms.
Swelling in a joint or joints
Joint stiffness that lasts for at least 1 hour in the early morning
Chronic pain or tenderness in a joint or joints
Warmth and redness in the joint area
Limited movement in the affected joint or joints
The symptoms of arthritis and other rheumatic diseases may look like other health conditions. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
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