A living will tells others how you want to be treated when it comes to life-sustaining measures. It is used when a person becomes terminally ill or unable to communicate or make decisions, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) says. Such a will doesn't always tell health care providers to withhold or end treatment. In fact, it can call for treatment to go on regardless of your medical condition. Having a living will protects your rights as a patient and means that your family or friends aren't left with the burden of making tough decisions about your care.
Many people avoid thinking about or getting a living will. People tend to think that serious illness or death is not going to happen to them and that they will live forever.
Beginning at age 18, you should put into writing how you feel about life-support systems, what your desires are, and the person you want to make decisions for you if you can't make them for yourself.
When putting together a living will, you should think about the issues or types of life-sustaining care, the NCI says. These include:
Life-sustaining equipment like dialysis machines, ventilators, and respirators
Do not resuscitate orders. This means medical staff is not to use CPR if your breathing or heart stops
Tube feeding or giving fluids by tube
Withholding food or fluids
Palliative care or care that provides comfort
Organ and tissue donation
You can refuse aggressive medical treatment, but still allow treatment that focuses on comfort. Such treatment could include antibiotics, nutrition, pain medication, and radiation therapy, the NCI says.
Once you sort through your feelings, you must write down what you want so that your caregivers and health care providers know how to care for you. Your message to your health care providers is known as a living will. Legal forms vary from state to state. If you spend time in more than 1 state, it's important to know each state's rules. You can check with a lawyer about what you will need, or you may find free forms and help by visiting the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization website. Any forms you use must be signed, dated, and witnessed.
It's best to be as exact as possible. Avoid unclear statements like, "Just let me go peacefully." In a crisis situation, caregivers need clear directions. This also helps avoid conflicts. Make sure that your family, friends, health care team, and hospital or other health care providers all have a copy of your living will so that it can be easily accessed and followed.
You will need someone to make decisions for you if you aren't able to do so. The person you choose should be named in a legal document known as a durable power of attorney. For health decisions, this person is often called your health care proxy. Pick someone who understands you, respects you and your wishes, and can make difficult decisions in times of stress. Explain your end-of-life choices and ask if he or she will honor your wishes. If the answer is "yes," you've found your support person. You can choose your durable power of attorney to make financial and other decisions for you as well, should you become unable to act or respond.
Your living will and durable power of attorney are legal documents known as advance directives. They will help make sure your wishes are followed.
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